BEACON: Directed Grey-Box Fuzzing with Provable Path Pruning

Provable Security - Unlike coverage-based fuzzing that gives equal attention to every part of a code, directed fuzzing aims to direct a fuzzer to a specific target in the code, e.g., the code with potential vulnerabilities. Despite much progress, we observe that existing directed fuzzers are still not efficient as they often symbolically or concretely execute a lot of program paths that cannot reach the target code. They thus waste a lot of computational resources. This paper presents BEACON, which can effectively direct a greybox fuzzer in the sea of paths in a provable manner. That is, assisted by a lightweight static analysis that computes abstracted preconditions for reaching the target, we can prune 82.94\% of the executing paths at runtime with negligible analysis overhead (ă5h) but with the guarantee that the pruned paths must be spurious with respect to the target. We have implemented our approach, BEACON, and compared it to five state-of-the-art (directed) fuzzers in the application scenario of vulnerability reproduction. The evaluation results demonstrate that BEACON is 11.50x faster on average than existing directed grey-box fuzzers and it can also improve the speed of the conventional coverage-guided fuzzers, AFL, AFL++, and Mopt, to reproduce specific bugs with 6.31x ,11.86x, and 10.92x speedup, respectively. More interestingly, when used to test the vulnerability patches, BEACON found 14 incomplete fixes of existing CVE-identified vulnerabilities and 8 new bugs while 10 of them are exploitable with new CVE ids assigned.

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