A Taxonomy and Review of Remote Attestation Schemes in Embedded Systems

Embedded systems that make up the Internet of Things (IoT), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) networks, and Smart Grid applications are coming under increasing scrutiny in the security field. Remote Attestation (RA) is a security mechanism that allows a trusted device, the verifier, to determine the trustworthiness of an untrusted device, the prover. RA has become an area of high interest in academia and industry and many research works on RA have been published in recent years. This paper reviewed the published RA research works from 2003-2020. Our contributions are fourfold. First, we have re-framed the problem of RA into 5 smaller problems: root of trust, evidence type, evidence gathering, packaging and verification, and scalability. We have provided a holistic review of RA by discussing the relationships between these problems and the various solutions that exist in modern RA research. Second, we have presented an enhanced threat model that allows for a greater understanding of the security benefits of a given RA scheme. Third, we have proposed a taxonomy to classify and analyze RA research works and use it to categorize 58 RA schemes reported in literature. Fourth, we have provided cost benefit analysis details of each RA scheme surveyed such that security professionals may perform a cost benefit analysis in the context of their own challenges. Our classification and analysis has revealed areas of future research that have not been addressed by researchers rigorously.

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IEEE Access
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