For modern industrial automation and control systems (IACS), it is a cybersecurity risk that provokes the most growing anxiety among other potential hazards. In order to manage the risk efficiently, a risk assessment is necessary. A standard CIA approach explores the confidentiality, integrity, and availability properties of assets. However, for IACS dealing with critical infrastructures, it is more crucial to investigate separately the availability part of the risk. Moreover, not assets but functions are particularly important. One of the major problems arising during the assessment is how to assign values for the availability property of IACS functions. For establishing the CIA values, techniques related to confidentiality and integrity seem to be quite evident and make just a minor issue to develop and employ. However, methods for assessing the availability property happen to be not obvious and not widely used. The article presents a metric helpful for the availability valuation. Inherently constructed to be applicable particularly to functions, not to assets, the metric will be found especially effective for IACS. Essentially based on delay as a measure, the metric is proved to be conformant to the IEC 62443 series availability interpretation and the general requirements for the cybersecurity metrics. For the metric to be accurately calculated, the availability reference model, dependency theory, and a theory of deterministic queuing systems Network calculus are proposed to be utilized. Applying Network calculus to the metric calculation, the article reveals that this problem can be reduced to the problem of obtaining sets of service curves.
Authored by A.A. Baybulatov, V.G. Promyslov
Cyber physical system (CPS) Critical infrastructures (CIs) like the power and energy systems are increasingly becoming vulnerable to cyber attacks. Mitigating cyber risks in CIs is one of the key objectives of the design and maintenance of these systems. These CPS CIs commonly use legacy devices for remote monitoring and control where complete upgrades are uneconomical and infeasible. Therefore, risk assessment plays an important role in systematically enumerating and selectively securing vulnerable or high-risk assets through optimal investments in the cybersecurity of the CPS CIs. In this paper, we propose a CPS CI security framework and software tool, CySec Game, to be used by the CI industry and academic researchers to assess cyber risks and to optimally allocate cybersecurity investments to mitigate the risks. This framework uses attack tree, attackdefense tree, and game theory algorithms to identify high-risk targets and suggest optimal investments to mitigate the identified risks. We evaluate the efficacy of the framework using the tool by implementing a smart grid case study that shows accurate analysis and feasible implementation of the framework and the tool in this CPS CI environment.
Authored by Burhan Hyder, Harrison Majerus, Hayden Sellars, Jonathan Greazel, Joseph Strobel, Nicholas Battani, Stefan Peng, Manimaran Govindarasu
Dynamic Infrastructural Distributed Denial of Service (I-DDoS) attacks constantly change attack vectors to congest core backhaul links and disrupt critical network availability while evading end-system defenses. To effectively counter these highly dynamic attacks, defense mechanisms need to exhibit adaptive decision strategies for real-time mitigation. This paper presents a novel Autonomous DDoS Defense framework that employs model-based reinforcement agents. The framework continuously learns attack strategies, predicts attack actions, and dynamically determines the optimal composition of defense tactics such as filtering, limiting, and rerouting for flow diversion. Our contributions include extending the underlying formulation of the Markov Decision Process (MDP) to address simultaneous DDoS attack and defense behavior, and accounting for environmental uncertainties. We also propose a fine-grained action mitigation approach robust to classification inaccuracies in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). Additionally, our reinforcement learning model demonstrates resilience against evasion and deceptive attacks. Evaluation experiments using real-world and simulated DDoS traces demonstrate that our autonomous defense framework ensures the delivery of approximately 96 – 98% of benign traffic despite the diverse range of attack strategies.
Authored by Ashutosh Dutta, Ehab Al-Shaer, Samrat Chatterjee, Qi Duan
Due to the concern on cloud security, digital encryption is applied before outsourcing data to the cloud for utilization. This introduces a challenge about how to efficiently perform queries over ciphertexts. Crypto-based solutions currently suffer from limited operation support, high computational complexity, weak generality, and poor verifiability. An alternative method that utilizes hardware-assisted Trusted Execution Environment (TEE), i.e., Intel SGX, has emerged to offer high computational efficiency, generality and flexibility. However, SGX-based solutions lack support on multi-user query control and suffer from security compromises caused by untrustworthy TEE function invocation, e.g., key revocation failure, incorrect query results, and sensitive information leakage. In this article, we leverage SGX and propose a secure and efficient SQL-style query framework named QShield. Notably, we propose a novel lightweight secret sharing scheme in QShield to enable multi-user query control; it effectively circumvents key revocation and avoids cumbersome remote attestation for authentication. We further embed a trust-proof mechanism into QShield to guarantee the trustworthiness of TEE function invocation; it ensures the correctness of query results and alleviates side-channel attacks. Through formal security analysis, proof-of-concept implementation and performance evaluation, we show that QShield can securely query over outsourced data with high efficiency and scalable multi-user support.
Authored by Yaxing Chen, Qinghua Zheng, Zheng Yan, Dan Liu
One of the important characteristics envisioned for 6G is security function virtualization (SFV). Similar to network function virtualization (NFV) in 5G networks, SFV provides new opportunities for improving security while reducing the security overhead. In particular, it provides an attractive way of solving compatibility issues related to security. Malware in Internet of Things (IoT) systems is gaining popularity among cyber-criminals because of the expected number of IoT devices in 5G and 6G networks. To solve this issue, this article proposes a security framework that exploits softwarization of security functions via SFV to improve trust in IoT systems and contain the propagation of malware. IoT devices are categorized into trusted, vulnerable, and compromised levels using remote attestation. To isolate the devices in the three distinct categories, NFV is used to create separate networks for each category, and a distributed ledger is used to store the state of each device. Virtualized remote attestation routines are employed to avoid any compatibility issues among heterogeneous IoT devices and effectively contain malware propagation. The results show that the proposed framework can reduce the number of infected devices by 66 percent in only 10 seconds.
Authored by Muhammad Aman, Uzair Javaid, Biplab Sikdar
Advances in wireless networking, such as 5G, continue to enable the vision of the Internet of Things (IoT), where everything is connected, and much data is collected by IoT devices and made available to interested parties (i.e., application servers). However, events such as botnet attacks (e.g., [1]) demonstrate that there are important challenges in this evolution.
Authored by David Shur, Giovanni Di Crescenzo, Qinqing Zhang, Ta Chen, Rajesh Krishnan, Yow-Jian Lin, Zahir Patni, Scott Alexander, Gene Tsudik
The releases of Intel SGX and AMD SEV mark the transition of hardware-based enclaves from research prototypes to mainstream products. These two paradigms of secure enclaves are attractive to both the cloud providers and tenants, since security is one of the key pillars of cloud computing. However, it is found that current hardware-defined enclaves are not flexible and efficient enough for the cloud. For example, although SGX can provide strong memory protection with both confidentiality and integrity, the size of secure memory is tightly restricted. On the contrary, SEV enables enclaves to use more memory but has critical security flaws due to no memory integrity protection. Meanwhile, both types of enclaves have relatively long booting latency, which makes them not suitable for short-term tasks like serverless workloads. After an in-depth analysis, we find that there are some intrinsic tradeoffs between security and performance due to the limitation of architectural designs. In this article, we investigate a novel hardware-software co-design of enclaves to meet the requirements of cloud by placing a part of the logic of the enclave mechanism into a lightweight software layer, named Enclavisor, to achieve a balance between security, performance, and flexibility. Specifically, our implementation is based on AMD’s SEV and, Enclavisor is placed in the guest kernel mode of SEV’s secure virtual machines. Enclavisor inherently supports memory encryption with no memory limitation and also achieves efficient booting, multiple enclave granularities, and post-launch remote attestation. Meanwhile, we also propose hardware/ software solutions to mitigate the security flaws caused by the lack of memory integrity. We implement a prototype of Enclavisor on an AMD SEV server. The experiments on both micro-benchmarks and application benchmarks show that enclaves on Enclavisor can have close-to-native performance.
Authored by Jinyu Gu, Xinyu Wu, Bojun Zhu, Yubin Xia, Binyu Zang, Haibing Guan, Haibo Chen
In the face of an increasing attack landscape, it is necessary to cater for efficient mechanisms to verify software and device integrity for detecting run-time modifications in next-generation systems-of-systems. In this context, remote attestation is a promising defense mechanism that allows a third party, the verifier, to ensure a remote device’s configuration integrity and behavioural execution correctness. However, most of the existing families of attestation solutions suffer from the lack of software-based mechanisms for the efficient extraction of rigid control-flow information. This limits their applicability to only those cyber-physical systems equipped with additional hardware support. This paper proposes a multi-level execution tracing framework capitalizing on recent software features, namely the extended Berkeley Packet Filter and Intel Processor Trace technologies, that can efficiently capture the entire platform configuration and control-flow stacks, thus, enabling wide attestation coverage capabilities that can be applied on both resource-constrained devices and cloud services. Our goal is to enhance run-time software integrity and trustworthiness with a scalable tracing solution eliminating the need for federated infrastructure trust.
Authored by Dimitrios Papamartzivanos, Sofia Menesidou, Panagiotis Gouvas, Thanassis Giannetsos
Embedded systems that make up the Internet of Things (IoT), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) networks, and Smart Grid applications are coming under increasing scrutiny in the security field. Remote Attestation (RA) is a security mechanism that allows a trusted device, the verifier, to determine the trustworthiness of an untrusted device, the prover. RA has become an area of high interest in academia and industry and many research works on RA have been published in recent years. This paper reviewed the published RA research works from 2003-2020. Our contributions are fourfold. First, we have re-framed the problem of RA into 5 smaller problems: root of trust, evidence type, evidence gathering, packaging and verification, and scalability. We have provided a holistic review of RA by discussing the relationships between these problems and the various solutions that exist in modern RA research. Second, we have presented an enhanced threat model that allows for a greater understanding of the security benefits of a given RA scheme. Third, we have proposed a taxonomy to classify and analyze RA research works and use it to categorize 58 RA schemes reported in literature. Fourth, we have provided cost benefit analysis details of each RA scheme surveyed such that security professionals may perform a cost benefit analysis in the context of their own challenges. Our classification and analysis has revealed areas of future research that have not been addressed by researchers rigorously.
Authored by William Johnson, Sheikh Ghafoor, Stacy Prowell
Remote Attestation (RA) is a security service by which a Verifier (Vrf) can verify the platform state of a remote Prover (Prv). However, in most existing RA schemes, the Prv might be vulnerable to denial of service (DoS) attacks due to the interactive challenge-response methodology while there is no authentication about the challenge. Worse, many schemes cannot effectively detect mobile malware that can be inactive during the on-demand attestation launched by the Vrf. In this paper, we propose a self-measurement RA for SGX-based platforms, which can effectively mitigate DoS attacks and defend against mobile malware. To this end, a two-way identity authentication is first enforced between the Prv and Vrf with the help of a blockchain system, in which a shared session key is also generated. Secondly, trigger conditions of measurements on the Prv’s side are time points generated by the Prv self instead of Vrf’s requests. The Vrf can retrieve multiple selfmeasurement results during one execution of the protocol to monitor the Prv’s platform over a period of time continuously, which can detect mobile malware effectively. Our scheme utilizes SGX to provide the runtime protection for sensitive information such as session key, self-measurement code, time points of self-measurements, and self-measurement results, making a higher security guarantee. In addition, the session key, time points of self-measurements, and self-measurement code can be changed or upgraded, making our scheme more flexible and scalable. The simulation implementation and results show that our scheme is feasible and practical.
Authored by Zhengwei Ren, Xueting Li, Li Deng, Yan Tong, Shiwei Xu, Jinshan Tang
Trusted data transmission is the foundation of the Internet of Things (IoT) security, so in the process of data transmission, the trust of IoT nodes needs to be confirmed in real time, and the real-time tracking of node trust is also expected. Yet, modern IoT devices provide limited security capabilities, forming a new attack focus. Remote attestation is a kind of technology to detect network threats by remotely checking the internal situation of terminal devices by a trusted entity. Multidevice attestation is rarely studied although the ongoing single device attestation techniques lack scalability in the application of IoT. In this article, we present a lightweight attestation protocol based on an IoT system under an ideal physical unclonable functions environment. Our protocol can resilient against any strong adversary who physically accesses IoT devices. Simulation results show that our protocol is scalable and can be applied to dynamic networks.
Authored by Xinyin Xiang, Jin Cao, Weiguo Fan
Due to the concern on cloud security, digital encryption is applied before outsourcing data to the cloud for utilization. This introduces a challenge about how to efficiently perform queries over ciphertexts. Crypto-based solutions currently suffer from limited operation support, high computational complexity, weak generality, and poor verifiability. An alternative method that utilizes hardware-assisted Trusted Execution Environment (TEE), i.e., Intel SGX, has emerged to offer high computational efficiency, generality and flexibility. However, SGX-based solutions lack support on multi-user query control and suffer from security compromises caused by untrustworthy TEE function invocation, e.g., key revocation failure, incorrect query results, and sensitive information leakage. In this article, we leverage SGX and propose a secure and efficient SQL-style query framework named QShield. Notably, we propose a novel lightweight secret sharing scheme in QShield to enable multi-user query control; it effectively circumvents key revocation and avoids cumbersome remote attestation for authentication. We further embed a trust-proof mechanism into QShield to guarantee the trustworthiness of TEE function invocation; it ensures the correctness of query results and alleviates side-channel attacks. Through formal security analysis, proof-of-concept implementation and performance evaluation, we show that QShield can securely query over outsourced data with high efficiency and scalable multi-user support.
Authored by Yaxing Chen, Qinghua Zheng, Zheng Yan, Dan Liu
One of the important characteristics envisioned for 6G is security function virtualization (SFV). Similar to network function virtualization (NFV) in 5G networks, SFV provides new opportunities for improving security while reducing the security overhead. In particular, it provides an attractive way of solving compatibility issues related to security. Malware in Internet of Things (IoT) systems is gaining popularity among cyber-criminals because of the expected number of IoT devices in 5G and 6G networks. To solve this issue, this article proposes a security framework that exploits softwarization of security functions via SFV to improve trust in IoT systems and contain the propagation of malware. IoT devices are categorized into trusted, vulnerable, and compromised levels using remote attestation. To isolate the devices in the three distinct categories, NFV is used to create separate networks for each category, and a distributed ledger is used to store the state of each device. Virtualized remote attestation routines are employed to avoid any compatibility issues among heterogeneous IoT devices and effectively contain malware propagation. The results show that the proposed framework can reduce the number of infected devices by 66 percent in only 10 seconds.
Authored by Muhammad Aman, Uzair Javaid, Biplab Sikdar
Advances in wireless networking, such as 5G, continue to enable the vision of the Internet of Things (IoT), where everything is connected, and much data is collected by IoT devices and made available to interested parties (i.e., application servers). However, events such as botnet attacks (e.g., [1]) demonstrate that there are important challenges in this evolution.
Authored by David Shur, Giovanni Di Crescenzo, Qinqing Zhang, Ta Chen, Rajesh Krishnan, Yow-Jian Lin, Zahir Patni, Scott Alexander, Gene Tsudik
The releases of Intel SGX and AMD SEV mark the transition of hardware-based enclaves from research prototypes to mainstream products. These two paradigms of secure enclaves are attractive to both the cloud providers and tenants, since security is one of the key pillars of cloud computing. However, it is found that current hardware-defined enclaves are not flexible and efficient enough for the cloud. For example, although SGX can provide strong memory protection with both confidentiality and integrity, the size of secure memory is tightly restricted. On the contrary, SEV enables enclaves to use more memory but has critical security flaws due to no memory integrity protection. Meanwhile, both types of enclaves have relatively long booting latency, which makes them not suitable for short-term tasks like serverless workloads. After an in-depth analysis, we find that there are some intrinsic tradeoffs between security and performance due to the limitation of architectural designs. In this article, we investigate a novel hardware-software co-design of enclaves to meet the requirements of cloud by placing a part of the logic of the enclave mechanism into a lightweight software layer, named Enclavisor, to achieve a balance between security, performance, and flexibility. Specifically, our implementation is based on AMD’s SEV and, Enclavisor is placed in the guest kernel mode of SEV’s secure virtual machines. Enclavisor inherently supports memory encryption with no memory limitation and also achieves efficient booting, multiple enclave granularities, and post-launch remote attestation. Meanwhile, we also propose hardware/ software solutions to mitigate the security flaws caused by the lack of memory integrity. We implement a prototype of Enclavisor on an AMD SEV server. The experiments on both micro-benchmarks and application benchmarks show that enclaves on Enclavisor can have close-to-native performance.
Authored by Jinyu Gu, Xinyu Wu, Bojun Zhu, Yubin Xia, Binyu Zang, Haibing Guan, Haibo Chen
In the face of an increasing attack landscape, it is necessary to cater for efficient mechanisms to verify software and device integrity for detecting run-time modifications in next-generation systems-of-systems. In this context, remote attestation is a promising defense mechanism that allows a third party, the verifier, to ensure a remote device’s configuration integrity and behavioural execution correctness. However, most of the existing families of attestation solutions suffer from the lack of software-based mechanisms for the efficient extraction of rigid control-flow information. This limits their applicability to only those cyber-physical systems equipped with additional hardware support. This paper proposes a multi-level execution tracing framework capitalizing on recent software features, namely the extended Berkeley Packet Filter and Intel Processor Trace technologies, that can efficiently capture the entire platform configuration and control-flow stacks, thus, enabling wide attestation coverage capabilities that can be applied on both resource-constrained devices and cloud services. Our goal is to enhance run-time software integrity and trustworthiness with a scalable tracing solution eliminating the need for federated infrastructure trust.
Authored by Dimitrios Papamartzivanos, Sofia Menesidou, Panagiotis Gouvas, Thanassis Giannetsos
Embedded systems that make up the Internet of Things (IoT), Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) networks, and Smart Grid applications are coming under increasing scrutiny in the security field. Remote Attestation (RA) is a security mechanism that allows a trusted device, the verifier, to determine the trustworthiness of an untrusted device, the prover. RA has become an area of high interest in academia and industry and many research works on RA have been published in recent years. This paper reviewed the published RA research works from 2003-2020. Our contributions are fourfold. First, we have re-framed the problem of RA into 5 smaller problems: root of trust, evidence type, evidence gathering, packaging and verification, and scalability. We have provided a holistic review of RA by discussing the relationships between these problems and the various solutions that exist in modern RA research. Second, we have presented an enhanced threat model that allows for a greater understanding of the security benefits of a given RA scheme. Third, we have proposed a taxonomy to classify and analyze RA research works and use it to categorize 58 RA schemes reported in literature. Fourth, we have provided cost benefit analysis details of each RA scheme surveyed such that security professionals may perform a cost benefit analysis in the context of their own challenges. Our classification and analysis has revealed areas of future research that have not been addressed by researchers rigorously.
Authored by William Johnson, Sheikh Ghafoor, Stacy Prowell
Remote Attestation (RA) is a security service by which a Verifier (Vrf) can verify the platform state of a remote Prover (Prv). However, in most existing RA schemes, the Prv might be vulnerable to denial of service (DoS) attacks due to the interactive challenge-response methodology while there is no authentication about the challenge. Worse, many schemes cannot effectively detect mobile malware that can be inactive during the on-demand attestation launched by the Vrf. In this paper, we propose a self-measurement RA for SGX-based platforms, which can effectively mitigate DoS attacks and defend against mobile malware. To this end, a two-way identity authentication is first enforced between the Prv and Vrf with the help of a blockchain system, in which a shared session key is also generated. Secondly, trigger conditions of measurements on the Prv’s side are time points generated by the Prv self instead of Vrf’s requests. The Vrf can retrieve multiple selfmeasurement results during one execution of the protocol to monitor the Prv’s platform over a period of time continuously, which can detect mobile malware effectively. Our scheme utilizes SGX to provide the runtime protection for sensitive information such as session key, self-measurement code, time points of self-measurements, and self-measurement results, making a higher security guarantee. In addition, the session key, time points of self-measurements, and self-measurement code can be changed or upgraded, making our scheme more flexible and scalable. The simulation implementation and results show that our scheme is feasible and practical.
Authored by Zhengwei Ren, Xueting Li, Li Deng, Yan Tong, Shiwei Xu, Jinshan Tang
Trusted data transmission is the foundation of the Internet of Things (IoT) security, so in the process of data transmission, the trust of IoT nodes needs to be confirmed in real time, and the real-time tracking of node trust is also expected. Yet, modern IoT devices provide limited security capabilities, forming a new attack focus. Remote attestation is a kind of technology to detect network threats by remotely checking the internal situation of terminal devices by a trusted entity. Multidevice attestation is rarely studied although the ongoing single device attestation techniques lack scalability in the application of IoT. In this article, we present a lightweight attestation protocol based on an IoT system under an ideal physical unclonable functions environment. Our protocol can resilient against any strong adversary who physically accesses IoT devices. Simulation results show that our protocol is scalable and can be applied to dynamic networks.
Authored by Xinyin Xiang, Jin Cao, Weiguo Fan
Due to recent notorious security threats, like Miraibotnet, it is challenging to perform efficient data communication and routing in low power and lossy networks (LLNs) such as Internet of Things (IoT), in which huge data collection and processing are predictable. The Routing Protocol for low power and Lossy networks (RPL) is recently standardized as a routing protocol for LLNs. However, the lack of scalability and the vulnerabilities towards various security threats still pose a significant challenge in the broader adoption of RPL in LLNs.
Authored by Mauro Conti, Pallavi Kaliyar, Md Rabbani, Silvio Ranise
The perception of security when consumers use the m-fintech payment application impacts satisfaction and continuance intention. However, data security threats and legal breaches have made consumers skeptical about the continuance of m-fintech payments. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the perceived security factor as a form of consumer satisfaction and the desire to continue using it with the support of confirmation behavior. This study uses a quantitative method by surveying 357 m-fintech payment users in Jabodetabek. All collected data has been processed, cleaned, and analyzed utilizing variance-based Structural Equation Modeling statistics. The research finding has proven that all hypotheses are accepted. Perceived security significantly affects confirmation, satisfaction, and continuance intention. A confirmation significantly affects satisfaction, and satisfaction significantly affects the continuance intention of mfintech payment. The originality of this research measures perceived security formatively. The conclusions of this analysis serve as information for the digital central currency bank (CDBC) development plan based on the security level.
Authored by Ridho Ikhsan, Yudi Fernando, Vini Mariani, Anderes Gui, Ahmad Fakhrorazi, Ika Wahyuni-TD
The growth of Electric Vehicles (EVs), coupled with the deployment of large-scale extreme fast charging stations (XFCSs), has increased the attack surface for EV ecosystems. To secure such critical cyber-physical systems (CPSs), it is imperative for the system defenders to perform an in-depth analysis of potential attack vectors, evaluate possible countermeasures, and analyze attack-defense scenarios quantitatively to implement a defense strategy that will provide maximum utilization of their limited resources. Therefore, a systematic framework is essential, relying on modeling tools that security experts are familiar with. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive methodology for enabling the defender to perform a high-level attack surface analysis of an XFCS and determine the defense strategy with the highest utility value. We apply STRIDE threat modeling and attack defense tree (ADT) to enumerate realizable attack paths and identify possible defense measures. We then employ analytic hierarchy process (AHP) as a multi-criteria decisionmaking algorithm to obtain the highest utility strategy for the defender to adopt. The proposed methodology is validated by demonstrating its real-world feasibility through a case study, using sample attack paths for an XFCS.
Authored by Souradeep Bhattacharya, Manimaran Govindarasu, Mansi Girdhar, Junho Hong
Online loan is viewed as an alternative to banking but easier and provide direct connection between public and loan offerer. However, online security threats and scam are undermining the quality of online loan. This study aims to determine how the public views their privacy while using online loan applications, perceived risk, perceived security, and qualities on intention to apply online loan. In order to examine the intention, a quantitative survey method was adopted and survey questionnaire was sent to the public who had experienced and apply for online loan applications. 153 responses were received and analysed using IBM SPSS version 28 for demographic analysis and SmartPLS 4 for model and structural measurements. Results show that perceived security, service quality and system quality were not critical to the respondents when choosing online loan applications while perceived risk, information sharing, and privacy concern were critical. This study shows that general public believed that security and quality are part of the package when organization offered a product or service. Interestingly, while privacy, risk, and information are important, public felt that it is the duty of organization to take care of their interests. Future research should look into behavioural aspects of public risk, information sharing, and privacy concern to understand in-depth.
Authored by Natanael Kurniawan, Jacques, Muammar Tohepaly, Anderes Gui, Muhammad Shaharudin, Yuvaraj Ganesan
The escalating visibility of secure direct object reference (IDOR) vulnerabilities in API security, as indicated in ⁠ the compilation of OWASP Top 10 API Security Risks, highlights a noteworthy peril to sensitive data. This study explores IDOR vulnerabilities found within Android APIs, intending to clarify their inception while evaluating their implications for application security. This study combined the qualitative and quantitative approaches. Insights were obtained from an actual penetration test on an Android app into the ⁠ primary reasons for IDOR vulnerabilities, underscoring insufficient input validation and weak authorization methods. We stress the frequent occurrence of IDOR vulnerabilities in the OWASP Top 10 API ⁠ vulnerability list, highlighting the necessity to prioritize them in security evaluations. There are mitigation recommendations available for developers, which recognize its limitations involving a possibly small and homogeneous selection ⁠ of tested Android applications, the testing environment that could cause some inaccuracies, and the impact of time constraints. Additionally, the study noted insufficient threat modeling and root ⁠ cause analysis, affecting its generalizability and real-world relevance. However, comprehending and controlling IDOR dangers can enhance Android API ⁠ security, protect user data, and bolster application resilience.
Authored by Semi Yulianto, Roni Abdullah, Benfano Soewito
Risk assessors and managers face many difficult challenges related to the new network system. These challenges include the continuous changes in the nature of network systems caused by technological progress, their distribution in the fields of physics, information and social cognition, and the complex network structure that usually includes thousands of nodes. Here, we review the probability and risk-based decision technology applied to network systems, and conclude that the existing methods can not solve all the components of the risk assessment triad (threat, vulnerability, consequence), and lack the ability to integrate across multiple areas of network systems, thus providing guidance for enhancing network security. We propose a cloud native security chain architecture and network topology reconstruction technology link based on the full link of microservices. The network security performance is quantified by multi-layer filtering mechanism and setting different fitness index functions. The method proposed in this paper solves the problems of packet loss, load balancing and distributed delay of network security mechanism in the global network to a certain extent.
Authored by Shuo Sheng, Kun Che, Ang Mi, Xiaobo Wan