The rapid development of technology, makes it easier for everyone to exchange information and knowledge. Exchange information via the internet is threatened with security. Security issues, especially the issue of the confidentiality of information content and its authenticity, are vital things that must protect. Peculiarly for agencies that often hold activities that provide certificates in digital form to participants. Digital certificates are digital files conventionally used as proof of participation or a sign of appreciation owned by someone. We need a security technology for certificates as a source of information known as cryptography. This study aims to validate and authenticate digital certificates with digital signatures using SHA-256, DSA, and 3DES. The use of the SHA-256 hash function is in line with the DSA method and the implementation of 3DES which uses 2 private keys so that the security of digital certificate files can be increased. The pixel changes that appear in the MSE calculation have the lowest value of 7.4510 and the highest value of 165.0561 when the file is manipulated, it answers the security of the proposed method is maintained because the only valid file is the original file.
Authored by Bagas Yulianto, Budi Handoko, Eko Rachmawanto, Pujiono, Arief Soeleman
Recently, placing vehicles in the parking area is becoming a problem. A smart parking system is proposed to solve the problem. Most smart parking systems have a centralized system, wherein that type of system is at-risk of single-point failure that can affect the whole system. To overcome the weakness of the centralized system, the most popular mechanism that researchers proposed is blockchain. If there is no mechanism implemented in the blockchain to verify the authenticity of every transaction, then the system is not secure against impersonation attacks. This study combines blockchain mechanism with Ring Learning With Errors (RLWE) based digital signature for securing the scheme against impersonation and double-spending attacks. RLWE was first proposed by Lyubashevsky et al. This scheme is a development from the previous scheme Learning with Error or LWE.
Authored by Jihan Atiqoh, Ari Barmawi, Farah Afianti
The rise of social media has brought the rise of fake news and this fake news comes with negative consequences. With fake news being such a huge issue, efforts should be made to identify any forms of fake news however it is not so simple. Manually identifying fake news can be extremely subjective as determining the accuracy of the information in a story is complex and difficult to perform, even for experts. On the other hand, an automated solution would require a good understanding of NLP which is also complex and may have difficulties producing an accurate output. Therefore, the main problem focused on this project is the viability of developing a system that can effectively and accurately detect and identify fake news. Finding a solution would be a significant benefit to the media industry, particularly the social media industry as this is where a large proportion of fake news is published and spread. In order to find a solution to this problem, this project proposed the development of a fake news identification system using deep learning and natural language processing. The system was developed using a Word2vec model combined with a Long Short-Term Memory model in order to showcase the compatibility of the two models in a whole system. This system was trained and tested using two different dataset collections that each consisted of one real news dataset and one fake news dataset. Furthermore, three independent variables were chosen which were the number of training cycles, data diversity and vector size to analyze the relationship between these variables and the accuracy levels of the system. It was found that these three variables did have a significant effect on the accuracy of the system. From this, the system was then trained and tested with the optimal variables and was able to achieve the minimum expected accuracy level of 90%. The achieving of this accuracy levels confirms the compatibility of the LSTM and Word2vec model and their capability to be synergized into a single system that is able to identify fake news with a high level of accuracy.
Authored by Anand Matheven, Burra Kumar
People connect with a plethora of information from many online portals due to the availability and ease of access to the internet and electronic communication devices. However, news portals sometimes abuse press freedom by manipulating facts. Most of the time, people are unable to discriminate between true and false news. It is difficult to avoid the detrimental impact of Bangla fake news from spreading quickly through online channels and influencing people’s judgment. In this work, we investigated many real and false news pieces in Bangla to discover a common pattern for determining if an article is disseminating incorrect information or not. We developed a deep learning model that was trained and validated on our selected dataset. For learning, the dataset contains 48,678 legitimate news and 1,299 fraudulent news. To deal with the imbalanced data, we used random undersampling and then ensemble to achieve the combined output. In terms of Bangla text processing, our proposed model achieved an accuracy of 98.29% and a recall of 99%.
Authored by Md. Rahman, Faisal Bin Ashraf, Md. Kabir
Recently, social networks have become more popular owing to the capability of connecting people globally and sharing videos, images and various types of data. A major security issue in social media is the existence of fake accounts. It is a phenomenon that has fake accounts that can be frequently utilized by mischievous users and entities, which falsify, distribute, and duplicate fake news and publicity. As the fake news resulted in serious consequences, numerous research works have focused on the design of automated fake accounts and fake news detection models. In this aspect, this study designs a hyperparameter tuned deep learning based automated fake news detection (HDL-FND) technique. The presented HDL-FND technique accomplishes the effective detection and classification of fake news. Besides, the HDLFND process encompasses a three stage process namely preprocessing, feature extraction, and Bi-Directional Long Short Term Memory (BiLSTM) based classification. The correct way of demonstrating the promising performance of the HDL-FND technique, a sequence of replications were performed on the available Kaggle dataset. The investigational outcomes produce improved performance of the HDL-FND technique in excess of the recent approaches in terms of diverse measures.
Authored by N. Kanagavalli, Baghavathi Priya, Jeyakumar D
Deep learning have a variety of applications in different fields such as computer vision, automated self-driving cars, natural language processing tasks and many more. One of such deep learning adversarial architecture changed the fundamentals of the data manipulation. The inception of Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) in the computer vision domain drastically changed the way how we saw and manipulated the data. But this manipulation of data using GAN has found its application in various type of malicious activities like creating fake images, swapped videos, forged documents etc. But now, these generative models have become so efficient at manipulating the data, especially image data, such that it is creating real life problems for the people. The manipulation of images and videos done by the GAN architectures is done in such a way that humans cannot differentiate between real and fake images/videos. Numerous researches have been conducted in the field of deep fake detection. In this paper, we present a structured survey paper explaining the advantages, gaps of the existing work in the domain of deep fake detection.
Authored by Pramod Bide, Varun, Gaurav Patil, Samveg Shah, Sakshi Patil
False news has become widespread in the last decade in political, economic, and social dimensions. This has been aided by the deep entrenchment of social media networking in these dimensions. Facebook and Twitter have been known to influence the behavior of people significantly. People rely on news/information posted on their favorite social media sites to make purchase decisions. Also, news posted on mainstream and social media platforms has a significant impact on a particular country’s economic stability and social tranquility. Therefore, there is a need to develop a deceptive system that evaluates the news to avoid the repercussions resulting from the rapid dispersion of fake news on social media platforms and other online platforms. To achieve this, the proposed system uses the preprocessing stage results to assign specific vectors to words. Each vector assigned to a word represents an intrinsic characteristic of the word. The resulting word vectors are then applied to RNN models before proceeding to the LSTM model. The output of the LSTM is used to determine whether the news article/piece is fake or otherwise.
Authored by Qamber Abbas, Muhammad Zeshan, Muhammad Asif
Fake news is a new phenomenon that promotes misleading information and fraud via internet social media or traditional news sources. Fake news is readily manufactured and transmitted across numerous social media platforms nowadays, and it has a significant influence on the real world. It is vital to create effective algorithms and tools for detecting misleading information on social media platforms. Most modern research approaches for identifying fraudulent information are based on machine learning, deep learning, feature engineering, graph mining, image and video analysis, and newly built datasets and online services. There is a pressing need to develop a viable approach for readily detecting misleading information. The deep learning LSTM and Bi-LSTM model was proposed as a method for detecting fake news, In this work. First, the NLTK toolkit was used to remove stop words, punctuation, and special characters from the text. The same toolset is used to tokenize and preprocess the text. Since then, GLOVE word embeddings have incorporated higher-level characteristics of the input text extracted from long-term relationships between word sequences captured by the RNN-LSTM, Bi-LSTM model to the preprocessed text. The proposed model additionally employs dropout technology with Dense layers to improve the model's efficiency. The proposed RNN Bi-LSTM-based technique obtains the best accuracy of 94%, and 93% using the Adam optimizer and the Binary cross-entropy loss function with Dropout (0.1,0.2), Once the Dropout range increases it decreases the accuracy of the model as it goes 92% once Dropout (0.3).
Authored by Govind Mahara, Sharad Gangele
This paper deals with the problem of image forgery detection because of the problems it causes. Where The Fake im-ages can lead to social problems, for example, misleading the public opinion on political or religious personages, de-faming celebrities and people, and Presenting them in a law court as evidence, may Doing mislead the court. This work proposes a deep learning approach based on Deep CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) Architecture, to detect fake images. The network is based on a modified structure of Xception net, CNN based on depthwise separable convolution layers. After extracting the feature maps, pooling layers are used with dense connection with Xception output, to in-crease feature maps. Inspired by the idea of a densenet network. On the other hand, the work uses the YCbCr color system for images, which gave better Accuracy of %99.93, more than RGB, HSV, and Lab or other color systems.
Authored by Ihsan Sahib, Tawfiq AlAsady
Social media has beneficial and detrimental impacts on social life. The vast distribution of false information on social media has become a worldwide threat. As a result, the Fake News Detection System in Social Networks has risen in popularity and is now considered an emerging research area. A centralized training technique makes it difficult to build a generalized model by adapting numerous data sources. In this study, we develop a decentralized Deep Learning model using Federated Learning (FL) for fake news detection. We utilize an ISOT fake news dataset gathered from "" (N = 44,898) to train the deep learning model. The performance of decentralized and centralized models is then assessed using accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score measures. In addition, performance was measured by varying the number of FL clients. We identify the high accuracy of our proposed decentralized FL technique (accuracy, 99.6%) utilizing fewer communication rounds than in previous studies, even without employing pre-trained word embedding. The highest effects are obtained when we compare our model to three earlier research. Instead of a centralized method for false news detection, the FL technique may be used more efficiently. The use of Blockchain-like technologies can improve the integrity and validity of news sources.
Authored by Nirosh Jayakody, Azeem Mohammad, Malka Halgamuge
Nowadays, although it is much more convenient to obtain news with social media and various news platforms, the emergence of all kinds of fake news has become a headache and urgent problem that needs to be solved. Currently, the fake news recognition algorithm for fake news mainly uses GCN, including some other niche algorithms such as GRU, CNN, etc. Although all fake news verification algorithms can reach quite a high accuracy with sufficient datasets, there is still room for improvement for unsupervised learning and semi-supervised. This article finds that the accuracy of the GCN method for fake news detection is basically about 85% through comparison with other neural network models, which is satisfactory, and proposes that the current field lacks a unified training dataset, and that in the future fake news detection models should focus more on semi-supervised learning and unsupervised learning.
Authored by Zhichao Wang
A “tripartite and bilateral” dynamic game model was constructed to study the impact of space deterrence on the challenger's military strategy in a military conflict. Based on the signal game theory, the payment matrices and optimal strategies of the sheltering side and challenging side were analyzed. In a theoretical framework, the indicators of the effectiveness of the challenger's response to space deterrence and the influencing factors of the sheltering's space deterrence were examined. The feasibility and effective means for the challenger to respond to the space deterrent in a “tripartite and bilateral” military conflict were concluded.
Authored by Zhiyong Wu, Yanhua Cao
In this paper, we propose a novel watermarking-based copy deterrence scheme for identifying data leaks through authorized query users in secure image outsourcing systems. The scheme generates watermarks unique to each query user, which are embedded in the retrieved encrypted images. During unauthorized distribution, the watermark embedded in the image is extracted to determine the untrustworthy query user. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme achieves minimal information loss, faster embedding and better resistance to JPEG compression attacks compared with the state-of-the-art schemes.
Authored by J. Anju, R. Shreelekshmi
Axie infinity is a complicated card game with a huge-scale action space. This makes it difficult to solve this challenge using generic Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithms. We propose a hybrid RL framework to learn action representations and game strategies. To avoid evaluating every action in the large feasible action set, our method evaluates actions in a fixed-size set which is determined using action representations. We compare the performance of our method with two baseline methods in terms of their sample efficiency and the winning rates of the trained models. We empirically show that our method achieves an overall best winning rate and the best sample efficiency among the three methods.
Authored by Zhiyuan Yao, Tianyu Shi, Site Li, Yiting Xie, Yuanyuan Qin, Xiongjie Xie, Huan Lu, Yan Zhang
The reigning U.S. paradigm for deterring malicious cyberspace activity carried out by or condoned by other countries is to levy penalties on them. The results have been disappointing. There is little evidence of the permanent reduction of such activity, and the narrative behind the paradigm presupposes a U.S./allied posture that assumes the morally superior role of judge upon whom also falls the burden of proof–-a posture not accepted but nevertheless exploited by other countries. In this paper, we explore an alternative paradigm, obnoxious deterrence, in which the United States itself carries out malicious cyberspace activity that is used as a bargaining chip to persuade others to abandon objectionable cyberspace activity. We then analyze the necessary characteristics of this malicious cyberspace activity, which is generated only to be traded off. It turns out that two fundamental criteria–that the activity be sufficiently obnoxious to induce bargaining but be insufficiently valuable to allow it to be traded away–may greatly reduce the feasibility of such a ploy. Even if symmetric agreements are easier to enforce than pseudo-symmetric agreements (e.g., the XiObama agreement of 2015) or asymmetric red lines (e.g., the Biden demand that Russia not condone its citizens hacking U.S. critical infrastructure), when violations occur, many of today’s problems recur. We then evaluate the practical consequences of this approach, one that is superficially attractive.
Authored by Martin Libicki
With the development of technology, the invention of computers, the use of cyberspace created by information communication systems and networks, increasing the effectiveness of knowledge in all aspects and the gains it provides have increased further the importance of cyber security day by day. In parallel with the developments in cyber space, the need for cyber defense has emerged with active and passive defense approaches for cyber security against internal and external cyber-attacks of increasing type, severity and complexity. In this framework, proactive cyber defense and deterrence strategies have started to be implemented with new techniques and methods.
Authored by Mustafa Şenol
Technological innovations are expanding rapidly in the public safety sector providing opportunities for more targeted and comprehensive urban crime deterrence and detection. Yet, the spatial dispersion of crimes may vary over time. Therefore, it is unclear whether and how sensors can optimally impact crime rates. We developed a Smart City Digital Twin-based method to dynamically place license plate reader (LPR) sensors and improve their detection and deterrence performance. Utilizing continuously updated crime records, the convolutional long short-term memory algorithm predicted areas crimes were most likely to occur. Then, a Monte Carlo traffic simulation simulated suspect vehicle movements to determine the most likely routes to flee crime scenes. Dynamic LPR placement predictions were made weekly, capturing the spatiotemporal variation in crimes and enhancing LPR performance relative to static placement. We tested the proposed method in Warner Robins, GA, and results support the method's promise in detecting and deterring crime.
Authored by Xiyu Pan, Neda Mohammadi, John Taylor
Temporal Knowledge Graph Embedding (TKGE) is an extensible (continuous vector space) time-sensitive data structure (tree) and is used to predict future event given historical events. An event consists of current state of a knowledge (subject), and a transition (predicate) that morphs the knowledge to the next state (object). The prediction is accomplished when the historical event data conform to structural model of Temporal Points Processes (TPP), followed by processing it by the behavioral model of Conditional Intensity Function (CIF). The formidable challenge in constructing and maintaining a TKGE is to ensure absence of cycles when historical event data are formed/structured as logical paths. Variations of depth-first search (DFS) are used in constructing TKGE albeit with the challenge of maintaining it as a cycle-free structure. This article presents a simple (tradeoff-based) design that creates and maintains a single-rooted isolated-paths TKGE: ipTKGE. In ipTKGE, isolated-paths have their own (local) roots. The local roots trigger the break down of the traditionally-constructed TKGE into isolated (independent) paths alleviating the necessity for using DFS - or its variational forms. This approach is possible at the expense of subject/objec t and predicates redun-dancies in ipTKGE. Isolated-paths allow for simpler algorithmic detection and avoidance of potential cycles in TKGE.
Authored by Seif Azghandi
NATO strategy and policy has increasingly focused on incorporating cyber operations to support deterrence, warfighting, and intelligence objectives. However, offensive cyber operations in particular have presented a delicate challenge for the alliance. As cyber threats to NATO members continue to grow, the alliance has begun to address how it could incorporate offensive cyber operations into its strategy and policy. However, there are significant hurdles to meaningful cooperation on offensive cyber operations, in contrast with the high levels of integration in other operational domains. Moreover, there is a critical gap in existing conceptualizations of the role of offensive cyber operations in NATO policy. Specifically, NATO cyber policy has focused on cyber operations in a warfighting context at the expense of considering cyber operations below the level of conflict. In this article, we explore the potential role for offensive cyber operations not only in wartime but also below the threshold of armed conflict. In doing so, we systematically explore a number of challenges at the political/strategic as well as the operational/tactical levels and provide policy recommendations for next steps for the alliance.
Authored by Erica Lonergan, Mark Montgomery
{Health diseases have been issued seriously harmful in human life due to different dehydrated food and disturbance of working environment in the organization. Precise prediction and diagnosis of disease become a more serious and challenging task for primary deterrence, recognition, and treatment. Thus, based on the above challenges, we proposed the Medical Things (MT) and machine learning models to solve the healthcare problems with appropriate services in disease supervising, forecast, and diagnosis. We developed a prediction framework with machine learning approaches to get different categories of classification for predicted disease. The framework is designed by the fuzzy model with a decision tree to lessen the data complexity. We considered heart disease for experiments and experimental evaluation determined the prediction for categories of classification. The number of decision trees (M) with samples (MS), leaf node (ML), and learning rate (I) is determined as MS=20
Authored by Hemanta Bhuyan, Arun Sai, M. Charan, Vignesh Chowdary, Biswajit Brahma
Frauds in supply chain finance not only result in substantial loss for financial institutions (e.g., banks, trust company, private funds), but also are detrimental to the reputation of the ecosystem. However, such frauds are hard to detect due to the complexity of the operating environment in supply chain finance such as involvement of multiple parties under different agreements. Traditional instruments of financial institutions are time-consuming yet insufficient in countering fraudulent supply chain financing. In this study, we propose a novel blockchain-driven framework for deterring fraud in supply chain finance. Specifically, we use inventory financing in jewelry supply chain as an illustrative scenario. The blockchain technology enables secure and trusted data sharing among multiple parties due to its characteristics of immutability and traceability. Consequently, information on manufacturing, brand license, and warehouse status are available to financial institutions in real time. Moreover, we develop a novel rule-based fraud check module to automatically detect suspicious fraud cases by auditing documents shared by multiple parties through a blockchain network. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed framework, we employ agent-based modeling and simulation. Experimental results show that our proposed framework can effectively deter fraudulent supply chain financing as well as improve operational efficiency.
Authored by Ruiyun Xu, Zhanbo Wang, Leon Zhao
Personal data privacy is a great concern by governments across the world as citizens generate huge amount of data continuously and industries using this for betterment of user centric services. There must be a reasonable balance between data privacy and utility of data. Differential privacy is a promise by data collector to the customer’s personal privacy. Centralised Differential Privacy (CDP) is performing output perturbation of user’s data by applying required privacy budget. This promises the inclusion or exclusion of individual’s data in data set not going to create significant change for a statistical query output and it offers -Differential privacy guarantee. CDP is holding a strong belief on trusted data collector and applying global sensitivity of the data. Local Differential Privacy (LDP) helps user to locally perturb his data and there by guaranteeing privacy even with untrusted data collector. Many differential privacy algorithms handles parameters like privacy budget, sensitivity and data utility in different ways and mostly trying to keep trade-off between privacy and utility of data. This paper evaluates differential privacy algorithms in regard to the privacy support it offers according to the sensitivity of the data. Generalized application of privacy budget is found ineffective in comparison to the sensitivity based usage of privacy budget.
Authored by Geocey Shejy, Pallavi Chavan
In recent years, differential privacy has gradually become a standard definition in the field of data privacy protection. Differential privacy does not need to make assumptions about the prior knowledge of privacy adversaries, so it has a more stringent effect than existing privacy protection models and definitions. This good feature has been used by researchers to solve the in-depth learning problem restricted by the problem of privacy and security, making an important breakthrough, and promoting its further large-scale application. Combining differential privacy with BEGAN, we propose the DP-BEGAN framework. The differential privacy is realized by adding carefully designed noise to the gradient of Gan model training, so as to ensure that Gan can generate unlimited synthetic data that conforms to the statistical characteristics of source data and does not disclose privacy. At the same time, it is compared with the existing methods on public datasets. The results show that under a certain privacy budget, this method can generate higher quality privacy protection data more efficiently, which can be used in a variety of data analysis tasks. The privacy loss is independent of the amount of synthetic data, so it can be applied to large datasets.
Authored by Er-Mei Shi, Jia-Xi Liu, Yuan-Ming Ji, Liang Chang
Differential privacy mechanisms have been proposed to guarantee the privacy of individuals in various types of statistical information. When constructing a probabilistic mechanism to satisfy differential privacy, it is necessary to consider the impact of an arbitrary record on its statistics, i.e., sensitivity, but there are situations where sensitivity is difficult to derive. In this paper, we first summarize the situations in which it is difficult to derive sensitivity in general, and then propose a definition equivalent to the conventional definition of differential privacy to deal with them. This definition considers neighboring datasets as in the conventional definition. Therefore, known differential privacy mechanisms can be applied. Next, as an example of the difficulty in deriving sensitivity, we focus on the t-test, a basic tool in statistical analysis, and show that a concrete differential privacy mechanism can be constructed in practice. Our proposed definition can be treated in the same way as the conventional differential privacy definition, and can be applied to cases where it is difficult to derive sensitivity.
Authored by Tomoaki Mimoto, Masayuki Hashimoto, Hiroyuki Yokoyama, Toru Nakamura, Takamasa Isohara, Ryosuke Kojima, Aki Hasegawa, Yasushi Okuno
Ensuring high data availability while realizing privacy protection is a research hotspot in the field of privacy-preserving data publishing. In view of the instability of data availability in the existing differential privacy high-dimensional data publishing methods based on Bayesian networks, this paper proposes an improved MEPrivBayes privacy-preserving data publishing method, which is mainly improved from two aspects. Firstly, in view of the structural instability caused by the random selection of Bayesian first nodes, this paper proposes a method of first node selection and Bayesian network construction based on the Maximum Information Coefficient Matrix. Then, this paper proposes a privacy budget elastic allocation algorithm: on the basis of pre-setting differential privacy budget coefficients for all branch nodes and all leaf nodes in Bayesian network, the influence of branch nodes on their child nodes and the average correlation degree between leaf nodes and all other nodes are calculated, then get a privacy budget strategy. The SVM multi-classifier is constructed with privacy preserving data as training data set, and the original data set is used as input to evaluate the prediction accuracy in this paper. The experimental results show that the MEPrivBayes method proposed in this paper has higher data availability than the classical PrivBayes method. Especially when the privacy budget is small (noise is large), the availability of the data published by MEPrivBayes decreases less.
Authored by Xiaotian Lu, Chunhui Piao, Jianghe Han